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Polarizing microscope (Polarizing Microscope)
From;    Author:Stand originally
1, polarizing the characteristic of microscope

Polarizing and microscopical it is appraisal material a kind of microscope of property of fine structure optics. Every has the material of birefraction sex, be in polarizing the clarity that can differentiate below microscope, of course these materials also can have observation with coloring law, but some are impossible, and must use polarizing microscope.

Polarizing the characteristic of microscope, change common light the method that has lens check for polarized light namely, it is in order to differentiate some material odd refrangible (isotropy) or birefraction sex (anisotropy) .

Birefraction sex is the main feature of crystal. Accordingly, polarizing microscope is applied in the domain such as mineral, chemistry widely. In biology, a lot of structures also have birefraction sex, this is used with respect to need polarizing microscope tries to distinguish. In botanical respect, if differentiate silk of fiber, chromosome, spindle, amylaceous bead, cell wall and cytoplasmic with whether is crystal contained to wait in the organization. On plant pathology, of the bacteria inbreak, often cause the change of the chemistry inside the organization, OK and polarizing microscopy undertakes differentiating. In human body and zoologic respect, chang Li is used polarizing microscopy will differentiate cell of fiber of bone Ku, tooth, cholesterol, nerve, tumour, striated muscle and hair to wait.

2, polarizing the fundamental of microscope

(one) sheet is refrangible with birefraction sex: When the light carries some material, the property that is like light and do not change because of illuminate direction into the road, this kind of material has “ isotropy ” on optics, call odd reflection body again, if general aerates body, liquid and solid of blame crystallization sex; When be like the light to carry another material, the vibratory, amplitude of smooth speed, refractive index, absorbency and smooth skin have because of illuminate direction different, this kind of material has “ anisotropy ” on optics, call birefraction body again, wait like crystal, fiber.

(2) smooth polarization phenomenon: The characteristic with light-wave oscillatory basis, can divide for nature light and polarizing. The oscillatory characteristic of natural light is conduct in perpendicular light-wave a lot of oscillatory sides are had on the axis, the oscillatory amplitude on each plane is identical, its frequency is same also; Reflex of natural smooth course, reflection, birefraction and absorb wait for action, can make an oscillatory on a direction light wave, this kind of light-wave calls “ polarizing ” or ” of “ polarized light.

The simplest is going up point-blank only oscillatory linear polarized light. When the light enters birefraction system, show like plan institute, cent is A, B two kinds of linear and planar polarized light, both oscillatory direction is mutual and perpendicular, and speed, refractive index and wavelengh all differ somewhat.
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